NasalityInterpret V2009


(Beddor, Bell-Berti, Benguerel, Clumeck,Ohala, Vaissière, to cite a few), Ph. D. dissertations about nasality (Amelot, Cohn,Delvaux, Krakow, and Rossato)


EMG large anticipation 2 (activity of levator palatini), fibroscopy 1


  • LP declines before the nasal and the next utterance
  • LP declines for at the beginning until the middle of the vowel * Note that EMG happens before the movement of velum, which in turn happens before the opening of VP port.

*Nasograph, good tool for mesuring VP opening

EMA less anticipation than fiberscope (ICP Grenoble)

Overestimation can be due to CVC where V has a intrinsically lower velum (bell-berti 1991).


aerodynamic, carryover 2

acoustic-perceptual targets (ATP) V2012

##why ATP?

Articulation, articulatory system has compensatory capacities. No precise place of articulation from the production point of view for the vowels, see X-ray data  (the lips, the jaw, the tongue and, the larynx) [3, 4]. Also see the block and bite experiment.

Perception, listeners from different native languages show different phoneme identification and goodness ratings when exposed to the same stimulus stimuli [2]

##ATP for what?

Cardinal vowels, put forward by DJ  [1] 8 primary i e E a A u o O and 10 secondary  the first 8 secondary = rounded/unrounded He also suggests French vowels and the closest.

five primary CVs were derived as ‘auditorily equidistant’ between three ‘corner’ vowels’ i u A

Problem: Labels are primarily acoustic or perceptual [5], and not articulatory.

##Discrepancies in real life?

DJ, PL and Fr. (from Calliope?)

dj pl and fr


goldendict dicts

some nice pronunciation dict for lazy people, for more info check [here](


  1. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 8th edition(En-En)-牛津高阶词典(英英)第8版,含图片及英式发音和美式发音
  2. Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate 11th edition(En-En)-韦氏大学词典(英英)第11版,含图片及发音
  3. Longman DOCE5-Longman Dictinary of Contemporary English 5th edition(En-En)-朗文当代第五版英英词典,含发音和图片,大部分例句也带有朗读,很强悍!!!
  4. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd edition(En-En)-朗文发声辞典第三版,词典中有英音、美音,并对于“多音”的词,配有preference poll图表,即不同的发音在不同地区、不同年龄层里所占的比例。不得不说,这个碉堡了!!!
  5. Longman DOCE5 Extras(En-En)-不包含单词发音和图片,但是包含了该词汇的各种搭配,和牛津搭配词典类似
  6. 牛津高阶英汉双解 第四版(En-zh_CN)-英汉双解,我想这个对于国人是必不可少的吧?bgl的格式,排版很美观,无发音